It’s been way, way, way too long since I’ve posted. I haven’t been slacking though, I’ve merely been busy. Really.
I decided to dive back into the SVD problem and look at an alternative to the QR based SVD computations. Namely, I’m going to give a breakdown of the divide-and-conquer approach to computing the SVD. Similar to the relationship between bidiagonal SVD and tridiagonal QR decompositions, there is a close relationship between dividing-and-conquering QR and SVD. I’m going to start from "the inside out" with the innermost task of DC (divide-and-conquer) process: solving a particular equation known as the secular equation (secular meaning "not heavenly" – i.e., earthly or planetly – check it out on wikipedia).
One note: I feel very guilty about still using Python 2. I had intented to transition this project to Python 3 over the course of the last year. Alas, my major training clients over the last year were using Python 2 and I didn’t really want to have a mixed development environment on my laptop. Well, at least there’s something to do if I make a book out of these posts!
Enough preamble, let’s get down to business. Continue reading
At long last, I’ve gotten to my original goal: writing a relatively easy to understand version of your plain, vanilla SVD computation. I’m going to spend just a few minutes glossing (literally) over the theory behind the code and then dive into some implementation that builds on the previous posts. Thanks for reading! Continue reading
Last time, we looked at using Givens rotations to perform a QR factorization of a matrix. Today, we’re going to be a little more selective and use Givens rotations to walk values off the edge of a special class of matrices Continue reading
Today I want to talk about Givens rotations. Givens rotations are a generalization of the rotation matrix you might remember from high school trig class. Instead of rotating in the plane of a 2D matrix, we can rotated in any plane of a larger dimension matrix. We’ll use these rotations to selectively place zeros in a target matrix. Continue reading
My next two or three posts are going to deal with the QR and SVD techniques. QR can be done in several different ways. I’m going to work through two methods of computing QR that will shed some light on our SVD implementation. So, these two topics dovetail nicely. Onward! Continue reading
I spent a bunch of time talking about using lower level libraries (LAPACK directly and via LAPACKE or hand wrappers). My next set of posts is going to look at manually implementing these techniques. Mostly, I wanted to spend somem time with the numerical algorithms. I last visited them about 15 years ago in graduate school. There are also several performance lessons along the way (demonstating the limits of a "just compile it" for optimization). For starters, we’ll implement the Cholesky decomposition which is very easy to describe mathematically. Continue reading
In working through the Cholesky, QR, and SVD methods for solving the normal regression equations, I got curious about the underlying implementations of each. I did QR and Cholesky in grad school (a great Numerical Analysis sequence). I never got around to SVD (I think we did some variation of tridiagonalization). Anyway, Cholesky is so simple that I think testing Cholesky generated more interesting points for me. There were two big issues and the "testing" post is (I think) longer than the "implementation" post.
Executing the tests brought up an interesting software engineering (code reuse) issue and creating good test inputs brought up an intersting mathematical issue. Read on! Continue reading
In the last post, we tried to use lower-level LAPACK/LAPACKE calls to remove some of the copying overhead of our operations. Well, it turns out that it didn’t work out so well (see the table at the end of the post). The fundamental reason why is that LAPACKE took the easy way out, when they decided to wrap LAPACK functions. In particular, whenever there is a C-/Fortran-ordering issue (for a reminder), LAPACKE simply makes a copy. Continue reading